绿色氢:零排放,
infinite uses

HYDROGEN

Increasing hydrogen, decreasing costs

What can you do with 120 million tons of hydrogen(1)? Plenty! In fact, the number of new projects and technologies that use that annual global fuel supply is expanding rapidly.

虽然今天的氢气由不可再生过程生产,但几乎完全用于工业目的,脱碳努力已经制定green hydrogena viable alternative to fossil fuels.

Developing morelow-cost applicationswill help the green hydrogen industry scale-up production, drive down costs across multiple sectors, and promote a more seamless energy transition.

Power Generation: Supporting the Intermittency of Renewables

多年来,氢已被视为发电的候选人和长期可再生能源储存的供应商。与天然气一188bet金宝搏手机登入样,氢气可以长时间储存​​大量,并且每当需要发电时使用。以下应用程序已经在电源部门中形成:

  • 管道:在近期,可再生能源生产的氢气可以与天然气混合并注入气体管道。188bet金宝搏手机登入这是一种低成本的阶​​梯桥,减少建筑物,工业和发电厂中的天然气的排放,因为开发了100% - 氢水管道。188bet金宝搏手机登入
  • Turbines and Engines: For more than 20 years, more than 150 turbines have been burning fuels containing hydrogen globally. Nearly 50 have operated with a mix of more than 50 percent hydrogen, and it is now technically feasible for turbines to burn close to 100 percent hydrogen fuel.(2)
  • Fuel Cells: Today, fuel cells power vehicles and generate electricity and heat on a small scale. They mostly run on hydrogen produced from natural gas, providing back-up power to network equipment (e.g., telecom towers) and datacenters, and supplying off-grid power in isolated regions. However, compared to a turbine’s electrical conversion efficiency rate of roughly 33 to 55 percent, fuel-cell power plants have a conversion rate of 45 to 60 percent—and, as a result, they also have a significant potential to expand.(3)
use

Transport: Fueling a Green Economy

While hydrogen can be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines, it is now almost exclusively used in fuel cells. These cells are lighter than electric car batteries, and offer longer driving ranges and shorter refueling times. Hydrogen fuel cell systems are suitable for nearly all means of transport, including aviation, industrial equipment, and the following sectors:

  • Road Vehicles: Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are currently mass produced, and heavy-duty vehicles (buses, trucks) are coming to market within the next few years. According to the International Energy Agency, more than 380 hydrogen fueling stations are already open, and the Hydrogen Council expects 3,000 stations will be in operation by 2025, with the capacity to keep around 2 million FCEVs on the road.(4)
  • 铁路:今天,火车是全柴油或全电动。虽然电气化的铁路减少了排放,但它们的能量仅为柴油的激烈,并且需要高资本支出来构建开销电线。虽然铁路的氢技术仍处于初期阶段,但是氢火车的第一队已经在德国北部商业推出,加利福尼亚州的另一辆氢动力火车也在开发中。
  • Shipping: The only near-term alternative to heavy fuel oil and diesel engines in the shipping sector is liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, hydrogen-powered fuel cells are being developed to propel smaller passenger ships and ferries, and liquefied hydrogen is being considered as an option to meet the International Maritime Organization's greenhouse gas emission reduction target of 50 percent by 2050.(5)

行业:过渡到绿色氢气

Although hydrogen has been used throughout heavy industrial sectors for decades, most of the hydrogen in use today is produced from natural gas. As a result, a near-term opportunity exists to transition to hydrogen produced from renewables, reducing emissions in the following sectors:

  • Chemicals: In the chemical sector, the largest industrial market for hydrogen, the primary chemical produced is ammonia (NH3), used as nitrogen fertilizer and for the production of other chemicals.
  • Refining: Refineries are the second-largest industrial consumer of hydrogen. At oil refineries hydrogen is used for hydrocracking and for desulphurization of fuels.
  • Liquid Fuels: Hydrogen is also an important basic substance for producing the liquid fuel methanol (CH3OH). Methanol is used directly as a fuel in internal combustion engines or in direct methane fuel cells.
  • Other: Several other industrial sectors use hydrogen in their operations and have the potential to become massive end-users as technologies are scaled. These include iron and steel production, glass and ceramics manufacturing, and the cooling electrical generators. Currently, steelmaking uses coking coal as a carbon source. However, an alternative process called direct reduction via hydrogen is in demonstration phase, and has the potential to drastically decarbonize the steelmaking industry.

For hydrogen, the possibilities are truly infinite!